To a medium bowl, add the sweet chili sauce, chicken broth, soy, rice wine vinegar, brown sugar, lime juice, and garlic. Whisk everything together until the sugar is dissolved. Reserve 1/2 cup of the mixture to marinate the chicken. Lay the chicken breasts in a shallow dish, pour the reserved 1/2 cup of the sweet chili mixture over top of the chicken, making sure it is evenly coated. Cover the dish and refrigerate. Meanwhile transfer the remaining sauce mixture to a small saucepan over medium-low heat. Simmer until reduced and thickened, about 15 minutes.
Place a 12-inch cast iron skillet or heavy bottomed saute pan over medium-high heat. Swirl the pan with oil and add the marinated chicken to the pan, searing it on both sides, occasionally spooning some of the thickened sauce over the meat. Cook until the chicken is browned and caramelized cooked completely through. Allow the chicken to rest for 3-5 minutes, then slice the breasts at an angle. Add the steamed rice to 4 serving bowls. Top each bowl with a sliced chicken breast. Drizzle each bowl with the remaining thickened sauce. Sprinkle the bowls with cilantro and peanuts. Serve with lime wedges on the side.